by Gregory Ladd


Copyright 2000-2014

Legal Disclaimer

The Author accepts no liability for actions influenced or taken by anyone that reads this manual or receives a certificate of satisfactory completion of the American Muscle & Fitness Personal Trainerís Certification Program (AMFPT). This manual is meant to inform, entertain and educate the reader. The reader should independently verify any errors or omissions. The reader accepts sole liability and responsibility for any use or misuse of the information contained herein. By purchasing this course you agree to these terms. Information not to be used for diagnosing illnesses or injuries, prescribing medicine or medical treatment of any kind. This text may not be reproduced except where noted within, or by written permission of the Author.



Page Topic

1. Introduction/G.A.S./Quality of Care

2. Business Model/Duties/Age Groups

4. Professionalism/Liability/First Aid & CPR

5. Physical Activity Questionnaire

7. Training Agreement

7. Setting up Your Business/Rates

8. Marketing your Business/Credit Card Processing/Assistants

9. Virtual Terminal/Training Format

11. Questionnaires

12. Ten Commandments of Personal Training

13 Personal Training Assessment Form

14. Personal training Review Sheet

15. Fitness Definitions

16. Aerobic vs. Anaerobic

18. Adaptation to Stress

19. The Muscular System

20. Anatomy Chart

21. Anatomy Chart

22. Training Systems

22. Split Training/ Intensity/Volume

24. Muscle Fiber Types

25. Weight loss/Spot Reducing/Ab Training Myth

25. Spot Reducing

26. Stretching/BMR

27. Weight Loss Training

29. Volume Weight Loss Handout

30. Eating for Weight Loss Menu Handout

33. Food Group Analysis

34. Sample Weight Loss Menu/Last Ditch Weight Loss Effort

36. Weight Loss Tips Handout

38. Goal Setting Handout

38. Big Arms Handout

39. Programming Weight Loss

40. Mass Training/Routine

41. Big Legs Routine Handout

42. Arm Mass

43. Leg Mass

44. Mass Diet Handout

45. Mass Supplements

46. Mass Nutrition Guide/Toning

47. Toning Training Routine

48. Special Training Problems/Challenges

50. Aerobics

52. First Day Training New Clients/Spotting/Take it Easy

53. Technique and Form

54. Training Intensity

56. Get Your First Client Today/Client Contact List

58. Client Enrollment Form

60. Client Contact List

60. PT Telemarketing Script

62. PT Sales Script

64. Summary

65. Exam


Welcome to the American Muscle and Fitness Personal Trainer Certification Program.

The material presented in this manual is not medical or chemical, except where it is crucial that you understand a system or process related to fitness concepts. It is a disservice to present you with information that will not advance your career or expertise, and which may cause you to fail the exam.

What is a Personal Trainer?

A Personal Trainer is a fitness technician who designs exercise routines for customers, while guiding them through their workouts. As a fitness technician you will not be diagnosing injuries, illnesses or prescribing medicines. Note that it is a felony in the USA to discuss steroids or any drug with your clients, or to tell them where to acquire steroids or other illegal drugs. You cannot under any circumstances inject clients with any substance using a syringe. You, as a Personal Trainer, will be providing competent advice and safe instruction by employing standard, well-known training, eating and supplementation principles to your customers.

General Adaptation to Stress

The cornerstone of progressive resistance weight training is: Muscles adapt to stress by growing stronger, larger and by gaining endurance. This is called a stimulus response. Randomized training, or changing exercises frequently, based on Han Selye’s General Adaptation to Stress (GAS) theory, will be the overarching principle guiding your clients’ training protocol. A menu of different training techniques will be outlined for each of the three basic client types; the weight loss client, the toning client and the muscle building client. You will create a strong work ethic and positive mental attitude in your trainees - the two main factors that will lead to excellent results for them. Armed with the routines and information provided in this manual, you will be able to instruct and motivate your charges to achieve their training goals. You will also provide them with specific, specialized workout plans and advice. The material presented in this course will introduce strategies and exercise routines based on the GAS principle. A trainer's duties are examined, as well as muscle function, anatomy, nutrition and supplementation.

Quality of Care

As a Personal Trainer your customers’ quality of care is of paramount importance. Do not talk about steroids - and never administer a shot or medication to a client. Those actions can get you into serious legal trouble, while endangering the client. You must make the client's health (especially injury prevention) your top priority, rather than results at any cost. Most individuals are well able to tolerate vigorous exercise subsequent to a brief break in period, and some of your clients may actually exceed their goals because of the guidance you provide. Pay attention and listen to feedback as your client exercises. If there is a sudden unusual pain or popping sound, cease all exercise immediately and determine if medical attention is warranted. If an injury occurs do not attempt to diagnose it. Recommend that a doctor examine the problem. On the other hand, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) that occurs 24-48 hours after training is a common condition, and can be alleviated by a warm bath and an over the counter anti-inflammatory agent like aspirin.

Business Model

Since you are pursuing a career as a personal fitness trainer, you will have to decide whether you are going into business for yourself, or if you will work for someone else at a commercial health club, or a combination of those two options. Either way, the pay can be as much as $100 per hour, and the work is rewarding.

Your clients will expect you to be certified. This certification course fulfills that requirement and will enhance your skills - a must for safety, insurance and liability reasons. What your customers care about most is what you can do to help them achieve their goals quickly, comfortably and safely. Most health clubs now require you to obtain certification and insurance before they allow you to train anyone on the premises (go to https://securepersonaltrainerinsurance.com/SIS for a policy). Certification tells club managers and owners that you have completed a course about how to train their members properly. They know that you will not injure one of their customers because of a lack of correct training instruction. This manual will provide all you need to know to become a safe, successful and prosperous personal trainer.

Trainer’s Duties

A professional personal fitness trainer wears many hats. Always a coach first, clients come to rely on him or her as a friend, confidant, psychologist, technician, problem solver, time manager, and businessperson. You are in business to make money. Once you are up and running, your current customers must become a constant source of referrals for new business. Your professionalism and your clients’ excellent results will speak volumes about your expertise. When friends begin to ask your client about their new look, the client will boast about you - their great trainer - and your business will grow quickly. They will likewise report any negative experiences. Your business can go down the drain in a hurry if word gets out that you’re negative, overbearing or miss appointments. Always do the right thing, and be especially cautious of your language and actions, for legal and ethical reasons. Do not swear, curse or make statements or physical contact that may be perceived as sexual harassment. Always ask for permission, preferably in writing, before touching a client. Never make sexual advances or touch a client in an inappropriate way, especially in today’s litigious world. You may be sued, or worse yet, be arrested for sexual assault.

What Age Groups Can I Train?

The training routines in this manual are universal. They apply to children as young as eight years old, or seniors (at a lower intensity level and for brief periods), and can be adapted to any individual’s training. The only caveat is that youngsters who have not yet achieved puberty will not be able to add significant muscle mass, but they will improve strength levels. Overweight youths (and clients of any age) will be able to lose fat by applying the weight loss training routines in this guide.

A significant factor to consider if you are catering to minors as your client base, is the unfortunate and very real chance that an allegation of sexual abuse or inappropriate touching may be made by the child. More than one adult or a parent must always be present when a minor is training. At no time should you be alone with any minor client. Any harassing, sexual or cursing language by other members in the exercise area must also be avoided.


Clients that come to you may be very sensitive emotionally, especially about a weight problem or other physical insecurity. Put new clients at ease. Never talk down to, or belittle anyone you train. Dress professionally when meeting with clients. Wear a pressed, collared golf shirt and crisp, solid color sweat pants or shorts. Never show up at an appointment in sloppy or dirty attire. The clean, well-dressed image that you present displays your professionalism to the client. Be sure to use deodorant and mouthwash before every appointment.

Insurance & Liability

In order to determine a client’s readiness for physical exercise, they must fill out a health questionnaire and waver before you can train them (see following page). You may make copies of the one below, and have your clients fill it out. Just add both of your names to the form. The completed document should be kept in your files. Always protect yourself from a potential legal claim by purchasing a good insurance policy, in case something does go wrong. The cost is $100 annually for a $1,000,000 policy. You can go to https://securepersonaltrainerinsurance.com/SIS for more information. Let your insurance agent know that each customer fills out a waiver form and health questionnaire. Read the waiver out loud to each client carefully, or it may not be considered valid in court, should you ever be summoned. Use common sense in every situation. If you feel that someone is going to cause a problem in the long run, decline to take that person as a customer. There are plenty of others who will desire your services, and you won’t have to try to explain the negative rumor a potential customer heard. That would start your relationship off on the wrong foot. Remember that your customers will quickly become lifelong friends.

First Aid & CPR

Another aspect of a trainer’s responsibility is to take a CPR course and know basic first aid. If someone does have a cardiovascular accident, you may be able to help him or her (always call 911 in case of a medical emergency!). It is recommend that you take a CPR class for your client’s benefit, although you will probably never have to use it. If a client develops a minor muscle strain, or excessive soreness, the recovery formula is RICE – rest, ice, elevation and compression for the affected area. After completing this certification course, you will be able to train anyone with confidence and safety.

Your clients must fill out all the forms below when you enroll them. READ THE


PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE FOR:__________________________________________












If you haven’t recently done so, consult with your doctor by phone or in person, before increasing your activity level! Tell him what questions you answered yes to on survey. After medical evaluation, seek advice from your doctor as to your suitability for: unrestricted physical activity, probably on a gradually increasing basis; restricted or supervised activity to suit your needs, at least initially. If your doctor is aware of the problem, put your initials and a note next to the question(s) you answered “yes” to, explaining why it is okay to proceed with caution.


If you answered accurately, you have reasonable assurance of your present suitability for a graduated exercise program. If you have a temporary minor illness, like a cold, postpone increased activity.



SIGNED (PARTICIPANT):___________________________DATE:____________



THIS AGREEMENT is made and entered into this day of ,20__ by and between ____________________________________and ______________________________________.

(Client’s name and address) (Trainer’s name and address)

WHEREAS ____________and ____________ wish to enter into this agreement in order to define their respective rights, duties and obligations.

NOW THEREFORE in consideration of the terms, covenants, conditions and mutual promises contained herein, and other good and valuable consideration, it is hereby stipulated and agreed as follows:

  1. ________________ will provide personal training to ___________________.

  1. For this service rendered by ____________, _____________ will pay $_________, or $___________ for each of ___ training sessions at the rate of ___ training sessions per week.

  1. The training period will begin on / /20__ and end on / /20__.

  1. _________________ provides ________________ with a 24 hours notice of cancellation

or client will pay for the training session in full.

Sessions may be rescheduled with 24 or more hours notice.

By signing below, the undersigned stipulate and agree that they have completely read this agreement, that the terms are fully understood and voluntarily accepted by both parties and that this agreement is not signed under duress.

$____________ is payment amount received by _________________from _________________.

Payment represents full / partial payment with payment schedule as follows: $______________ due on / /20__ and balance, $______________ due on / /20__.

By signing below, the parties hereto have executed this agreement as of the day and year first written above.

_________________________________________ X___________________________

(Client’s name) (Client’s signature)

_________________________________________ X___________________________

(Trainer’s name) (Trainer’s signature)


If you decide to go into business for yourself, you will go to the County Clerk’s office and file a “Doing Business As” certificate, or DBA. (Limited Liability Companies - LLCs - are also a good choice, but more expensive and elaborate to set up) You will be asked to select a name for your business. Try choosing a name that describes your business, like, “Barb’s Personal Fitness Training,” or, “Ed’s Home Exercise Training,” so that when people read your business card they know exactly what you do.

You will be assigned a tax identification number (which is usually your social security number) and you can write off your business expenses against your income at tax time. You may be required to file quarterly tax statements if you are making a good income, because the government doesn’t allow you to keep their money longer than you are entitled to. Start keeping track of your expenses and keep all of your receipts. Maintain a record of all of all training fees received. If you know any accountants, talk to one about setting up your business. Perfect record keeping is good business.

As soon as you get certified have some business cards made with your phone number and email and drop them off everywhere you go. Pass them out to all your friends and family, stick them on bulletin boards and make sure to tell everyone you meet about your new business. Ask your contacts if they know anyone who might be interested in having a personal trainer. That’s probably how you’ll find your first customer!

Basic Rate

Set your rates up as a per session fee, for example: $25 per one half-hour session. The rule of thumb for training fees is a minimum of $1 per minute, so a thirty-minute session would be priced at $30. Make up some fliers to distribute to potential clients. Try to be as consistent as possible in pricing so that each client pays the same amount or you may wind up in trouble if they begin to compare rates. Don’t be afraid to raise your fees as you get busier. You are running a business and are entitled to make a profit from your efforts even though you may have developed friendships with your trainees. Since now they have become your friends, they will understand your need to raise prices from time to time.


Supplying your services to potential customers requires a marketing strategy and advertising. You may want to advertise in local penny savers, newspapers, the Internet (craigslist.com is free), and local fitness magazines to develop your client base. They are inexpensive ways to get customers. When you finally secure your first customer ask for referrals and get a testimonial letter you can add to your brochure. Hairdressers, hospital workers or restaurant employees come into contact with a lot of people. They will be your best references. If you can pick up a client who works in any of those fields, your business will really take off.

Your best income - and long term financial security - will come from having each client sign and pay for a long term training contract. Have them pay all the fees up front. Inform them that your cancellation policy is at least twelve hours notice, or they must pay for any missed, prescheduled session. If they skip and you haven’t been paid yet for that session, chances are you won’t be. If you have already received the money for the canceled slot, you simply deduct the charge as if the individual had trained. Create pre-paid packages that are more economical for the customer than your standard daily rate. If you charge $25 per 25-minute session, a good package would be $2500 for 105 training sessions. That’s only nine months of training at the rate of three appointments per week. Some clients may quit before they use all their paid training up. You may opt to retain their payment in case they resume working out. Decide how to handle refunds and describe your refund policy when they sign up.

It is in your best interest to provide clients a written copy of all your rules so you both know what your obligations are at your initial consultation. Have them sign it and keep a copy on hand. This will prevent misunderstandings and hard feelings in the future. Take a look at the fun Personal Trainer’s Ten Commandments. You can use this sheet and print copies for your clients. Both of you will be referring back to it from time to time. Always let the customer know your rules up front.

You must strive to make it to all your scheduled appointments on time. Most trainers (unless they work at a particular health club) will spend the bulk of their time driving to and from appointments. Invest in a day planner so that you can double check with clients to make sure they remember their appointments. There will always be cancellations. Expect at least one cancellation per workday. Cancellations are okay if you are being paid for them anyway. You can take a coffee break, or workout yourself.

Credit Card Processing

It is important to charge for each month in advance, so that you can plan your daily appointments. Clients are used to paying health club fees one month in advance. The ability to process credit cards will greatly enhance your income. Ask your bank about acquiring a credit card machine when you open your business account, especially if you are opening a gym, or training salon. If you don’t have a location, all you’ll need is a virtual terminal to handle charge card orders. That is an online banking system that allows you to process credit cards. You can also get the credit card processing app for your smart phone. You’ll want to get a business web site and Facebook page, too. You can post tips for your clients on and add interesting information about client successes. Testimonials should also be listed in both places.

Virtual Terminal

To find a web site and set up a virtual credit card processing terminal, do a web search on merchant website. You can add PayPal or Google Pay to your site for accepting client payments by credit card. You’ll be able to have clients log on to your web page and pay by credit card, PayPal or Google Pay over the Internet. The cost per transaction is minimal. You can write the client’s credit card information on a form and enter it onto the virtual terminal yourself when you get to your computer or swipe it by smart phone terminal. The money will automatically be deposited into your business bank account.

Here’s a technique for you to generate more business. Do a map search on most exclusive and prosperous streets in your city, or drive around until you discover a high-end neighborhood. Mail a letter describing your business to everyone on the street. Follow up with a phone call (see the script at the bottom of the manual). Call and announce that you’re inquiring to find out if they have had a chance to look at the personal trainer mailer that you sent, because you have several openings available. Ask for a no cost, no obligation appointment where you can present them the benefits of having a personal trainer come to their house. You’re likely to generate several interviews. Bring your questionnaires, contracts, waivers and Ten Commandments of Personal Training so you can sign prospects up as new clients.

Once you start training someone in a particular neighborhood, ask if you can use them as a referral. Call all nearby homes and let them know that you train their neighbor - use their name. It will provide them with social proof that you will do what you say you’ll do for them.

Developing Assistants

When you get too busy, you should develop an assistant to pick up your overload. Find a fit young guy or gal and introduce them to your current clients as your new assistant. Say, “They will be training you, but I will be still be designing the programs.” The assistant should accompany you on a several sessions with the client before you hand them off. Pay your new helper half of the regular fee you charge. You will leverage your time, earning money even while you’re on another appointment. Eventually groom two or three helpers so that you don’t have to train anyone, and give yourself a promotion to management. Try to market your training service to a local health club, especially to new clubs opening up. They may welcome your help with their staffing problems.

Training Format

There are several formats to consider when structuring your personal training service. While most clients will prefer a one-on-one setting, it can be expensive, and may eliminate a large part of the fitness population who cannot afford $150 per week in training fees. A solution that has worked well for many trainers is to offer group-training sessions in addition to one-on-one's. You can utilize group training in a commercial gym or someone's home, or any open space without any equipment at all, by doing calisthenics. The group size can vary from two to six people. The key is to set up several stations and have the clients rotate around the room until they have completed three circuits. This is a much lower cost solution for the average trainee and you will earn more money per hour by charging six people $20 than one person $50 for the same time slot. Some salons in busy office buildings offer 10-minute training sessions to executives who can keep their shirt and tie on during the workout. Ten minutes of brisk exercise, combined with parking further away, and using the stairs at work, are great ways to enhance fitness for the average businessperson. These ideas may inspire you to think of new ways to format your services.


Here are the questionnaires that your clients should fill out and sign. The first one should be filled out during your initial conversation with the customer. Read each question to the client and make sure they understand it. Have them tell you the answer verbally, then let them check the appropriate box.

The second assessment form should be used as a measuring stick after several weeks of training to determine whether or not you are meeting their expectations. Sometimes people may not feel comfortable telling you that they don’t like some aspect of their training because they like you, but you may lose them if the issues are not addressed. And you will be unaware there is a problem until they suddenly stop showing up for appointments with you. That’s the hard way to find out they are not happy, so utilize these assessment sheets and administer them frequently.

The feedback from questionnaires can help guide the direction of your sessions. Keep a training log for each client including: the date, time, exercises, sets, reps and any additional items like illnesses, injuries or supplements. You will be able to show a steady progression to the client as you review the workouts. When you generate a glowing response, it's time to ask the client for referrals. Inform them that there is always room for one of their friends in your schedule. If someone is not satisfied with his or her training, be flexible and let him or her know that the workout is for their benefit, so you can make any changes that they would like. Never be dogmatic or pig-headed. What do you care if someone prefers leg presses over squats? They're both good leg exercises. Allow the client some input. Training is customer service, and keeping customers happy is your number one priority. Your livelihood depends on it.


  1. Thou shalt always be ready to train at thy appointed time.

2.Thou shalt call at least twelve hours ahead to cancel or pay full price for thy missed session.

3.Thou shalt do all that the trainer tells thou with no murmuring.

4.Thou shalt eat the way thou are commanded to by thy trainer.

5.Thou shalt not bounce any checks lest thou pay a $25 fee for it.

6.Thou shalt tell all of thy friends about the wonderful things thy trainer has done for thou.

7.Thou shalt not use foul language or take the name of God in vain.

8.Thou shalt cheerfully and joyfully attend thy training sessions, and reflect lovingly upon them.

9.Thou shalt get good results and blessings if thou doest all thy trainer commands thee.

10.Thou shalt have curses (fat and weak) if thou failest to follow any of thy trainer’s commands.

Thy mark______________This day________________










LEAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 HEAVY





















Fitness is a combination of: aerobic, strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance that allows one to perform physical activity free from injury, well above sedentary levels. Fitness should also include excellent health (but does not have to - many fit individuals may have minor underlying health issues).

The general components of fitness are: 1.) Agility; 2.) Cardio vascular / cardio respiratory endurance; 3.) Dynamic balance; 4.) Explosive strength; 5.) Flexibility; 6.) Freedom from disease; 7.) Freedom from injury and stress; 8.) Limit strength; 9.) Local muscular endurance; 10.) Percent body fat; 11.) Preventative past lifestyle; 12.) Speed endurance; 13.) Starting strength; 14.) Static balance; 15.) Strength endurance; 16.) The mirror and before & after photos (most important for most of your clients).

Strength is defined as one's capacity to apply maximum muscular force within structural, anatomical, physiological, biochemical, psycho-neural, psychosocial, and environmental constraints.

Limit strength is the muscular force that in individual can apply to an object eccentrically, statically, or concentrically, over a given unit of time, or for a number of repetitions, usually one. An example is a one-rep maximum on the bench press.

Starting strength is one's capacity to enervate a muscle's cells all at once, immediately, such as in throwing.

The six components of strength that can be augmented through weight training are: 1.) Eccentric or deceleration strength; 2.) Transition or static strength; 3.) Pushing off or concentric strength; 4.) Speed strength; 5.) Limit or absolute strength; 6.) Maximum force applied to the object.

Agility is the ability to change physical direction of the body in a short period of time using explosive strength, dynamic balance, limit strength, and starting strength, like when a football player executes a play.

Flexibility is not as important as strength in a stretched position. Flexibility in athletics is more important than in every day situations. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is a form of resistance training that builds strength in a stretched position.

There are four technologies of fitness equipment: 1.) Constant resistance devices that keep the resistance on a muscle uniform throughout the range of motion (like a bench press machine); 2.) Variable resistance devices (like Nautilus machines) which vary the resistance through the range of motion; 3.) Accommodating resistance devices (like Hydra Fitness and Life Fitness) that control the speed of contraction; 4.) Static resistance, or isometric, which contract the muscles without movement.

There are eight fitness technologies: 1.) Heavy weight resistance training; 2.) Light resistance machines like exercise bikes, rowers, and stair climbers; 3.) Psychological techniques like hypnosis or mental imagery; 4.) Therapeutic techniques like ice, heat, massage, ultra sound, and whirl pools; 5.) Medical support such as Chiropractors, drugs, and medical monitoring; 6.) Bio-mechanics or skill training; 7.) Diet; 8.) Supplements.

The causes of over training or over use syndrome is either too great a frequency, or too great an intensity or duration of exercise over a given period of time, to allow for systemic and/or localized recovery.

A pump in a muscle as experienced when blood is shunted away from the spleen and organs and toward working muscles during exercise, thus providing oxygen and nutrients, and removing waste products and carbon dioxide.

Lactic acid build up and connective tissue trauma cause post exercise muscle soreness. Hydroxyproline is an enzyme released from connective tissue that causes delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) from about 24 to 48 hours. It can be reduced by using a whirlpool or warm bath immediately after training, or through massage, or by over the counter anti-inflammatory agents. Easing into an exercise routine as a precaution reduces or eliminates delayed onset muscle soreness.


Systole and Diastole are the upper and lower values on a blood pressure test, with normal values ranging from 60 to 80 Diastole to 90-139 Systole. It is a measure of the efficiency of the heart and circulatory system. The five components of cardiovascular endurance are: 1.) Heart rate; 2.) Stroke volume; 3.) Ejection fraction of the left ventricle; 4.) Maximum oxygen uptake; 5.) Gas exchange efficiency of the lungs. An ideal resting blood pressure reading is 125/70. Blood pressure rises during exertion and drops while resting. Some trainers use electronic blood pressure cuffs to take regular readings for their clients, which is something you may want to add to your service menu.

There are two basic types of energy systems utilized by the body, Aerobic and Anaerobic. Each energy system produces Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) which is used by the muscles to contract.

The Aerobic System can utilize carbohydrates, proteins or fat to supply an unlimited amount of ATP as long as oxygen is present. The Aerobic system provides medium to very long duration energy production with low to moderate power (less than 85% of maximum output). The by-product of this system is heat, water and carbon dioxide.

The Anaerobic System can only utilize carbohydrates for ATP production. This system does not use oxygen in the metabolization of its fuel source. The Anaerobic System provides short duration (45 - 70 seconds) and high power. The by-product of the metabolization of glucose (glycolysis) in this system is heat and lactic acid, the cause of muscle soreness immediately after exercise. Muscle soreness 24 to 48 hours after exercise is due to torn muscle fibers and connective tissue. Adequate warm-up and cool-down stretching exercises can reduce this type of soreness.

Aerobic capacity is the ability of the body to collect and transfer oxygen from the air through the lungs and blood to the working muscles. This is related to cardio-respiratory endurance and is referred to as Maximal Oxygen Consumption or VO2 max. Aerobic Capacity reduces at about 10% per decade after 30 years of age.

The Anaerobic Threshold is defined as that point where the body can no longer meet the oxygen demand and it's anaerobic metabolism is accelerated. This point varies on an individual basis and is dependent on fitness level. For healthy individuals, this occurs between 50% and 66% of their maximal working capacity. This would be equivalent to running faster than half speed.

The lungs are where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged. In the blood stream, oxygen is traded for carbon dioxide. Aerobic activity enhances heart strength. The result is a greater volume of blood per stroke. This is referred to as Stroke Volume or the amount of blood ejected from each ventricle of the heart during one stroke. Cardiac Output is a measure of the amount of blood pumped through each ventricle in one minute. Vital Capacity is the volume of air that can forcibly ejected from the lungs in a single expiration. Aerobic activity has a positive effect on vital capacity, stroke volume and heart output. Note: arteries carry oxygen rich blood away from the heart and veins carry blood and carbon dioxide toward the heart.


There is a way to coax your clients into peak condition that is based on scientific research. You are going to apply endocrinologist Han Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) system to your clients’ training programs. Doing so will produce better results for them than conventional cookie-cutter training methods can. Selye’s theory established how the body passes through three universal stages during the physiological and psychological stress of exercise:

  1. Alarm Reaction - the body prepares itself for fight or flight by secreting adrenal hormones and dilating blood vessels. Muscle soreness, sunburn and blisters are alarm reactions.

  1. Adaptation Stage - the body adapts to the stress by growing stronger. Suntan, calluses, added muscle size, endurance and strength are adaptation reactions.

  1. Exhaustion Stage - the individual becomes mentally and physically exhausted (over trained) and must rest before resuming the cycle all over again. Planned rest periods are generally unnecessary because clients will miss scheduled training sessions for many reasons, which builds automatic rest days into the system.

A random training system based on Selye’s adaptation principle will apply unique demands on the muscular and nervous system. It will engender an adaptive stimulus response, or improvement in strength and stamina. By varying the training sequence, exercises, style, volume, intensity, sets and repetitions, while lifting regularly and continuously, breakthroughs and improvements can become regular occurrences for your clients.


As a trainer, you must know the basic muscle groups of the body. Here is a synopsis of the major muscle groups and how they work. Let’s start at the top and work our way down.

The muscles in the sides of the neck are called the sterno-mastoids, which hold the head up and rotate it. In the front of the body, beneath the neck, there are the pectoralis major and minor (commonly called pecs), or chest. Their job is to help push objects forward and away from the body. The deltoids, which cap each arm and attach it to the shoulder joint, are a three-headed muscle with the anterior, lateral and posterior heads. The deltoids raise each arm to the side and overhead. Beneath that, on the front of the upper arm are the biceps, which curl the arms up, and on the back of the upper arm are the triceps, which straighten or extend the arm. The forearm is made up of the brachialis on the top and the extensor carpi on the palm side of the forearm, which pulls the hands and fingers closed.

Below and behind the neck are the trapezius muscles or traps. These are responsible for the shrug motion. Down the back, below the traps, we find the Latisimus Dorsi that gives the back its V-shape. Other muscles included in the upper back are the rhomboids, Teres major and minor, sub-scapularis, super-spranatis and infra-spranatis. They are small muscles that hold the arm and shoulder joint together. They are utilized in pulling or rowing movements. They are generically referred to as the rotator cuff. Beneath those muscles are the spinal erectors or lumbar, located in the lower back. They keep us upright, contracting to return us to the standing position after a toe touch. The gluteus maximus is the buttocks, used in extending the leg backward, or assisting in rising from a crouch. The biceps femorus are located under the glutes, commonly called hamstrings, which kick the heel up towards the buttocks. The gastrocnemeus and the soleus make up the calf muscles and allow us to stand on tiptoe.

This condensed lesson should be enough to help you answer questions about what a particular exercise or muscle group does. Here is a rule to help you determine which muscles a machine or exercise works - even if you have never used the machine or exercise before: muscles shorten, or contract, to cause movement. Individual muscle fibers twitch, or shorten. This is called a concentric contraction, which causes pushing or pulling. Static contractions are isometrics, where a muscle or group of muscles pushes against an immovable force. The third type of contraction is eccentric, or negatives, a controlled lowering of a weight. Remember the rule, muscles always pull on levers (bones) by shortening to cause movement, even when the exercise requires pushing a weight.

Please study the following diagrams and memorize the major muscle groups mentioned above.


The AuthorBACKCHARTGREG422-08.jpg


The customers that come to you will want a specific result, either weight loss, muscle building, or cardiovascular fitness. Some will want a combination of all three. Each type of training involves different techniques, exercises and varying equipment. All three systems will be covered in detail.

To understand training systems you need to know the most basic gym language and definitions. A rep or repetition is an exercise movement performed by lifting a weight from the start, or bottom of a movement, to the top, and back down again. A series of single repetitions done in quick succession and then terminated is called a set. Exercise routines are traditionally comprised of combinations of sets and reps. Other variations of sets and reps include partial range reps, isometric (no movement) reps, and peak contraction (squeezing a muscle at the top) reps. All these elements have a place in a well rounded training regimen.

Sets can become more elaborate, too. A super set is when a trainee performs two sets for the same (or different) muscles without resting in between them. Tri-sets are three sets performed in a row with no rest. Circuit training is one giant set performed with no rest at all, until the prescribed number of sets is complete.

It is a good idea to briefly explain sets and reps to your customers because they may not be familiar with the concept, especially if they have never been in a weight room before. You are most likely intimately familiar with the fundamentals of exercise if you have been working out for a number of months or years. The personal fitness trainer should be an inspiration and example to clients. It is hard (although not impossible) to acquire training clients if you are fifty-pounds overweight yourself. Being out of shape doesn’t help sell your services or showcase your abilities, although there are some excellent trainers who looked as though they have never set foot in a gym.

Split Training

Split training means splitting the body into segments of separate muscle groups, which are trained on alternating days, so that muscle recovery is maximized and growth can occur. It is a used as a mass building technique. The adaptive growth response actually occurs during rest periods between workouts. For example, biceps and triceps could be trained on day one, chest and back on day two, and legs on day three. A rest day would follow each training day and then the cycle can start all over again.

Split training is primarily used for building muscle mass, and should never be utilized for weight loss or toning clients, because weight loss routines are light, high volume routines that do not require recovery periods. Toning routines are whole body sessions involving light, or medium weight, pumping sessions spread out over three alternating days of the week.


High Intensity Training (HIT) means performing a lot of work in a very short time, or using heavy weights for a few reps over brief training period. Sprinting is an example of HIT.

Volume training is spreading out the same amount of work over a much longer time period, by using less weight and more reps. Long distance running is an example of high volume training.

The Nautilus Company and a Mr. Universe, Mike Mentzer, came up with a high intensity, one set per-body-part training system. They touted the system as the only way to train for muscle mass increases, or anything else, for that matter. While Mike lobbied for hard, short and infrequent training sessions, which is correct up to a point, many trainees were thriving and growing on longer duration, higher volume, low intensity routines. Nautilus centers would limit a person’s training session to twenty minutes, so that each gym could accommodate a greater number of members. The shorter session is still the best method for making progress and scheduling more appointments, but a variety of high and low intensity regimens must be applied to clients with divergent goals.

Thirty minutes of quality exercise with a trainer is the correct amount of training time regardless of the client’s goals. Blood cortisol levels begin to rise markedly after thirty minutes of intense training. Cortisol is an anti-muscle building hormone, which can negate all the hard work your client puts in at the gym. Cortisol breaks down muscle tissue instead of building it. IFBB Pro and AMFPT Trainer, Danny Padilla, will only train a client for sixteen minutes in order to avoid cortisol damage.

Cardiologists now believe that it is the amount of calories expended during activity that determines the effectiveness of training on heart soundness more than any other factor. About five hundred calories burned from exercise daily is the optimum target for heart health and thirty minutes of fast weight training reaches that level nicely. Clients can be encouraged to perform additional stationary bike or treadmill work before or after your training session by themselves for weight loss or cardiovascular benefits. You can schedule twice as many appointments following the thirty-minute guideline than traditional hour-long training sessions. More than thirty minutes will probably mean that the client is probably talking instead of training. You will have to manage your clients as they converse with you, directing them as quickly as possible through the workout (without rushing them), so that they feel well trained, if you want to be keep them. Remind them of their next appointment with a smile as they leave. End every session on a positive note by telling them how well they did. Recap their workout and emphasize the high points and any breakthroughs they experienced.

If your clients desire to add more muscle, train them with forced reps, heavy weights and high intensity training, after breaking them in for a week or so. There is a class of proteins that protect muscle cells from the by-products of exertion, heat damage, formaldehyde, alcohol, and lactic acid. These are called, not surprisingly, protector proteins. They require about a week to fully develop. During the break in period, the size and number of muscle, heart, and lung cell mitochondria are also increasing. That is why stamina and endurance accelerates rapidly, once training commences. It is also why muscular adults are leaner than those with no muscle tone are. Mitochondria convert chemical energy into muscular movement. There is always a slight amount of muscular tension in the muscles in order to maintain the body’s 98-degree temperature.


There are three major muscle fiber types. Fast twitch provides explosive strength and has the greatest capacity for hypertrophy (i.e.: muscle growth). Intermediate twitch fibers allow medium speed contractions, usually in the twelve to twenty repetition ranges with a medium weight. Slow twitch, or endurance fibers, provide contractions during twenty-rep plus exercises performed in slow, continuous fashion while weight lifting. They make long term endurance and aerobic sessions possible. The slow and intermediate muscle cells have less capacity for growth than fast twitch. Each type is laced throughout the muscle, and research has shown the ability of one type to transform into another type because of specific training.

It is necessary to understand muscle fiber types in order to develop a routine for each individual’s goals. The three basic muscle fiber types are called fast (pennate), medium (bi-pennate) and slow twitch fibers (fusiform).

Fast twitch fibers are responsible for explosive movements such as sprinting, moving heavy weight, boxing, football etc. They will grow, or hypertrophy, to a much higher degree than medium or slow twitch muscle fiber and will respond best to 70% of one rep maximum weight or above. Muscle cells can also split or divide, but they mainly enlarge. Heavy, explosive sets in the 1 - 12-repetition range builds muscle sarcomere mass.

Medium and slow twitch muscle fibers don’t have the capacity for great size increases that fast twitch muscle fibers do. Examples of athletes with a lot of slow twitch fibers are marathon runners, tri-athletes or endurance competitors like Tour De France cyclists. They are lean and defined, but not heavily muscled. Woman do not usually wish to develop a lot of muscle mass, so it is best to avoid training fast and medium twitch muscle fibers by employing light weights and long duration training. Following is a profile for how to train for different goals.

Physical trainers generally refer to only fast and slow twitch muscle fibers. Muscle fibers can actually change from fast to slow twitch and back again, depending on training modality. That is an important point if you are training a strength or endurance athlete for a specific goal. A football player should always train explosively for short duration. A marathon runner should only train slowly for long periods. A bodybuilder would lift heavy weights for explosive, medium interval training. A fat reducing routine for someone who doesn’t want added muscle mass requires extremely light, high repetition, longer duration training.


Weight loss is the trainer’s biggest market and customer group. You can do more for your business by helping one obese person trim down quickly, than almost anything else. People notice dramatic improvements. Noticeable weight loss is a great conversation starter, which means referrals for you.


For years scientists and exercise physiologists said that there was no such thing as spot reducing. Arnold Schwarzenegger, in his book, Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding, said, “Scientists tell us there is no such thing as spot reducing. But there is something that looks like spot reducing.” He then went on to detail how it works in real life. Training an area like the abdominals made them more defined. He was right.

Studies have shown that when you increase blood flow to a muscle group during exercise, the high level of adrenal hormones in the blood stream act forcefully on the fat tissue surrounding the working muscle. This increase allows the proximity fat deposits to be broken down quickly and used as an energy source by the working muscle.

An effective way to take advantage of this new information is to train the area or muscle group several times a day for five to ten minutes with a moderate resistance, pumping routine. This will work particularly well for the thighs, hips, and abdominals. A good way to get quick results for clients is start them off by training the body part they wish to reduce, and finish the workout with it, too.


Many infomercials for stomach training equipment talk about training the upper and lower abs. Always remember this: any sit up, crunch, or leg raise works the abdominal muscles from top to bottom. To prove this, do a little experiment. The next time you do any ab exercise, reach down and touch the stomach muscles to see where they tense up. You may be surprised to find that they are hard as a rock from top to bottom, no matter what exercise you do (that is, if you have any ab muscles).

The only part of the midsection that you can isolate beside the abs is the obliques, or love handles on the sides. Lying side leg raises and side crunches for 3-5 sets of 20 to 40 reps are the best remedy (in addition to diet), for them. Note: Never allow your clients do side bends because they can compress the disks in the lower back.


A basic stretch for the lower back should be performed after a few minutes of warm up exercises or treadmill before the hard part of their routine. They can also be performed at the end of the session. Have the client lie on his or her back and draw their knees into the rib cage. They can also hold one leg at a time if that is easier for them. Have them hold the stretch for 1-2 minutes. They should take a deep breath as they start and exhale as they pull in, gradually relaxing the muscles and pulling in the slack as they exhale. Very basic, not too fancy, but effective. The reason to have clients do it after a warm up is because the muscles, tendons and ligaments will become more flexible after the body is warm.

You can use any other kind of stretch that you think will be effective for them, while keeping in mind that untrained individuals can't do the same things you and I can. The European strength athletes actually use sleeping bags or saunas as a warm up to save energy for training. While this may not be practical for you to use with clients, a few minutes on the bike or treadmill will work nicely.

Overweight people sometimes have lower back problems that stretching and ab exercise improves quickly. If they don't have any, a stretch routine done for two or three minutes before hitting the weights will keep clients from developing a backache.


Basal metabolic rate, or BMR, is the number of calories that are required to maintain a person's current body weight based on average body composition. This assumes that the activity level remains constant. To calculate basal metabolic rate, use the formula below.

BMR is 10 x weight, multiplied by the number equal to the client's activity level shown here.





BMR * 1.45

BMR * 1.60

BMR * 1.70

BMR * 1.88

The energy value in a calorie (kcal or cal.) is defined by science as kilo-calories, or the heat energy required to heat one liter of water one degree Celsius. Both protein and carbohydrates contain 4 calories per gram. Fat energy is 9 calories per gram. A diet goal for a daily consumption of 2000 calories would be:

60% of food intake from Carbohydrates (1200 calories, or 300 grams).

30% of food intake from Protein (600 calories, or 150 grams).

10% of food intake from Fat is (200 calories, or 22 grams).

Exercise automatically increases calorie requirements. The table below shows the approximate amount of calories required for a 150 pound person performing an activity for an hour.

Consuming more calories increases weight and fewer calories causes weight loss.


Calories used


Calories used



Stationary Bike




Ski Machine






Stair Climber





The body fat percent considered good for men is 8-12 %, while 12 to 16% is considered good for women. Clinically obese values for men are 30% and for women are 35%. Chronically obese numbers for men is 25% and for a woman is 30%. Diet is most effective when combined with exercise for fat loss.

Weight loss training involves high volume, high repetition or duration exercises, sometimes incorporating as many as 100 repetitions per set with very light weight. Circuit training with a moderate resistance also works well for some individuals when weight loss is the goal. The primary focus for weight loss should always be diet, although exercise and diet go hand in hand whatever the goal may be. Most people in the over weight category will need to start with an ultra light, short, low intensity work load in order to fully gauge their degree of cardiovascular fitness, or lack of it. The first session duration should be no more than ten minutes of actual exercise. Overweight people may have underlying health problems such as cardiovascular disease or other unknown conditions that may be exacerbated by exercise. Always have them sign off on the health questionnaire and waiver form and explain to them that you are going to start off very easy and gradually increase the training volume over the first few weeks.

The following is group of exercise routines designed to meet any trainee’s needs. A sample high volume exercise program for women whose exercise goal is to lose weight from the lower body is outlined below. It is a high repetition system designed to develop definition by training primarily slow twitch muscle fibers, which have little capacity for growth or hypertrophy, so that your female clients don’t have to worry about gaining too much muscle bulk. This training will also increase the number and size of mitochondria in the muscle cells, which are responsible for burning fat and transforming it into energy. You can educate your clients about the role of increased mitochondria in weight loss. High rep exercise should be combined with endurance training on cardiovascular equipment such as the stationary bicycle or treadmill. Avoid the stair climber because the intensity level is too high for fat burning purposes. Thirty minutes to one hour each day will produce great weight loss results and excellent cardiovascular fitness for anyone.

For your female clients who wish to lose weight work up to 100 reps at a quick cadence. Start them out at 10-20 reps the first day, then 20-30 the next until you get in the range of 50 to 100 reps with extremely light weights. Make them lift the weights with a one count up and a one count down rhythm for best weight loss results. They may need to stop and rest for several seconds at during the set, which is perfectly acceptable, but try to keep breaks brief – only the time necessary for them to continue on and complete the rep goal.

Emphasize lower body training for women and upper body for men. An upper body weightlifting weight loss program for women should include compound movements like: bench presses, pull downs or rows; shoulder presses; curl and press. You would utilize light weight and ultra high reps. A large amount of upper body exercises is not recommended for weight loss, because upper body muscles are smaller than lower body muscles and will not burn as many calories.

Exercises like standing leg kickbacks, standing side leg raise, top end squats and top end lunges, all with no weight, are particularly effective for women. If you have an inner and outer thigh machine at your gym, put them on it every time they train, but continually mix up the other exercises to alleviate boredom. Have weight loss clients work abs at the beginning and the end of the workout. Only perform one set of each exercise, because after 50-100 reps, they'll be begging to move on to something else. The entire routine should take no more than thirty minutes.

For those clients attempting to add muscle mass, some of the mass training handout’s exercises are the same as the weight loss handouts, but the execution is different. Weight loss routines are high volume, light weight and low intensity, while muscle building routines are high intensity, low to medium volume systems that employ progressively heavier training loads. Here are some tried and proven routines to meet any needs that your trainees may have. You may make copies and hand them out to your clients. Execute this routine just as it is written after building up to the prescribed number of reps. Change up the exercises each training session so that boredom does not set in.


WORK UP TO ONE SET OF 100 REPS ON EACH EXERCISE, AND THEN INCREASE THE WEIGHT. MAKE AN EFFORT TO WORK BACK UP TO 100 REPS AGAIN. This routine trains the slow twitch muscle fibers, which have little capacity for growth.















Individuals go on and off diets all the time. Losing weight temporarily and then gaining the weight back once off the diet is referred to as yo-yo dieting. The key to losing weight and keeping it off is to incorporate healthy eating habits into one's life. Diet usually conjures up feelings of deprivation, which is why diets are difficult to hold or maintain. Some fad diets are too low in calories. A menu too restrictive in calories (a fast) can have adverse effects because the body will go into a starvation mode, which causes the internal systems to slow down. Metabolism slows to a pace that will conserve energy. Muscle loss tends to occur as the body cannibalizes its own muscle, which is protein, for energy. By making a few minor adjustments in one's daily eating pattern, changes in physical appearance and overall health will result, without taking drastic measures.

Studies have shown that athletes can develop the ability to use about 50% fat and 50% glucose for energy during aerobic exercise. That is the best fat burning ratio attainable. An excellent system for fat loss that includes aerobics is to circuit train with weights, employing an out of breath pace for added cardiovascular benefits. The latest research indicates that the body burns fat for up to four hours after a heavy resistance workout. There is no residual fat burning observed after an aerobic session. You simply burn the amount of calories that the treadmill workout used up.

Another way to attack fat is through food group choices. If you burn 500 calories per hour during an aerobic or weight training session, that equals a calorie dense McDonald’s meal of a burger, fries and a diet soda. A better way to remove unwanted fat is to avoid fast food and concentrate on foods that are lighter in calories per gram like rice, rice cakes, reduced calorie bread, vegetables, salads, oranges, apples, potatoes, yams. There are so many low calorie snack foods available today that you should be able to satisfy your cravings without unwanted calories. It's a less energy and time intensive method for losing unwanted fat and you can eat this way on a continual basis.

Most dieters have discouraging weight loss results when consuming pasta, cereal, milk and sugar in their diets while trying to lose fat. Try the suggestions and the menu choices mentioned below. High protein, low carbohydrate meal replacement drinks are also excellent meal substitutes and add convenience when you are on the go. Pack chicken or turkey breast sandwiches with mustard on reduced calorie bread for work or school. Limit your bread intake to four slices per day and don't eat carbohydrates before bed. If you are starving at night eat egg whites or plain albacore tuna with vegetables to quiet your belly grumbling.

Note: Weight readings on the scale may not change much initially if you are gaining muscle mass while reducing food intake, but adding muscle will help you lose fat and weight in the long run.

Here are the most frequent reasons that a dieter doesn't lose fat, as opposed to weight.

1. Menu is too high in calories from calorie dense foods like snack foods, pizza, desserts, pasta, bread, and dairy products.

2. Activity and exercise levels are too low, or non-existent.

3. Slow thyroid. Check by taking your temperature as soon as you wake up each morning. If your temperature is below 98.6 degrees for 7 days in a row, bring the results to the attention of your physician. He can run further tests. About one in two Americans has an under active thyroid.

4. Fewer than 20 grams of protein are consumed for breakfast. Protein regulates insulin levels. When a high sugar or carbohydrate meal is consumed for breakfast, insulin levels in the blood become elevated. In the presence of insulin, fat is stored for energy, not broken down. Hypoglycemia all day long is the result

5. Too much fat is consumed. Watch butter, cream, salad dressing, and fried foods.

6. Too much sugar is consumed. Did you know that juice manufacturers are allowed by the FDA to put sugar in juice and label it un-sweetened? They complain that much of the sugar was leached out during processing. The average adult consumes too much sugar. Every American eats 50 lb. per year according to researchers!

7. Studies show that many Americans eat their heaviest meals at night rather than at breakfast. The pattern of eating too much right before bed or munching on midnight snacks can be broken after twenty-one days of abstinence and will become a habit. If you eat for the activity level that follows a meal, then you'll know not to eat the most before bed. All you're doing is sleeping and storing fat and energy. Try no food after 6:00 pm. for the next three weeks.

8. Alcohol slows down the metabolism and is processed like sugar by the body raising insulin levels and causing fat storage.

9. Too few meals or calories are eaten per day. The body goes into a starvation mode, where it uses muscle for energy needs while conserving fat. Eat at least three staggered meals per day. Never skip a meal, unless it's at night.

10. Too many in between meal snacks are consumed.

There are the ten main reasons why people who want to lose weight or fat don't. If each one of the causes of weight gain is systematically eliminated, the symptoms (adipose tissue) will go away.


PROTEIN: Steak, eggs, chicken, fish, turkey, milk, cheese, ham, any seafood, beef, or pork. These are what replace broken down muscle and organ proteins, and add a little (0.1% per training session) more back into the muscles than there was before exercise.

CARBOHYDRATES: There are complex (slow absorption) and simple (fast absorption) carbohydrates, also called high and low glycemic index carbs: bread, oats, rice, barley, rye, all vegetables, apples, potatoes, yams are all examples of low glycemic (good) complex carbs. However, people trying to lose weight don’t get good results with bread or dairy products even though they are low glycemic foods, because they are too calorie dense, and they also contain estrogen like compounds. DON’T EAT LIST: Candy, cookies, sugar, cake beer, liqueur, wine are of the simple, high glycemic variety, and should be limited because of the effects they have on insulin production and fluctuating energy levels. Insulin also interferes with fat loss and growth hormone (GH) production. GH is a fat burning hormone.

LOW GLYCEMIC INDEX CARBS: Whole grain rye bread, yogurt, apples, oranges, peaches, plums, pears, grapefruit, oatmeal, whole wheat bread, pasta, baked beans, peas, kidney beans, lima beans, sweet potatoes, yams, soy beans and potatoes. Limit pasta, yogurt and bread when reducing.

NO MORE FATS: Greasy foods, hamburgers, cheese, red meat, bacon, ham, pork, oils, butter, egg yolks, mayonnaise, cooking oils, whole milk, ice cream, pizza, salad dressing, cream sauces, doughnuts, potato chips, chicken wings, nuts of all kinds, peanut butter.

ELIMINATE ALL SUGAR: White table sugar or refined sugar is more dangerous than any other FDA approved food additive on the market. It warrants a special warning because of its negative effect on fat loss and contribution to heart disease. Sucrose or refined sugar is an ingredient in almost every processed food you purchase.

Here is another good reason to avoid sugar -- it can cause hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is a condition where the blood sugar drops below the normal level because of sugar consumption. The pancreas shoots insulin into the blood stream, the hormone responsible for dealing with excess blood sugar. In as little as 20 minutes your blood sugar and energy level drop to lower than the pre-sugar food levels. The insulin continues to scavenge blood glucose until your liver is forced to release its stored glycogen in a futile attempt to maintain normal blood sugar levels. This begins a crash cycle that causes a craving for more sugar. A previously mentioned method to help regulate insulin is by consuming 20 grams of protein for breakfast and by avoiding sweetened foods and sugar in coffee.


BREAKFAST: 5-10 egg white or egg beaters veggie omelet, and rice cakes or low cal toast or English muffin plain, grapefruit juice, coffee black, and a multiple-vitamin/mineral.

LUNCH: 6-8 oz. Broiled fish, or skinless chicken or turkey breast, salad or vegetable dish, dry baked potato or yam, or rice. A small helping of melon or strawberries for dessert.

DINNER: 6-8 oz. Broiled fish, or skinless chicken or turkey breast, salad or vegetable dish, dry baked potato or yam, or rice. A small helping of melon or strawberries for dessert.

SNACKS: Plain rice cakes or popcorn, no butter.

Meal substitutes are 8 to10 oz. of non-fat cottage cheese. Calories are approximately 1500 and carbohydrate intake is about 150g. Protein is about 150g. This menu works if it is followed. Drink at least a gallon of water per day.

Fast food and restaurants must be avoided wile trying to lose weight, Although many restaurants now offer low calorie-high protein fare that is perfectly in line with fat loss goals. The key to losing weight and keeping it off is to incorporate healthy eating habits into one's life, like not eating after a certain hour. Anything done consistently over a period of three weeks becomes habituated, which is why diets are difficult to start and maintain in the beginning.

There are times when a starvation diet too low in calories can cause the body to cannibalize muscle instead of fat. The body will go into a starvation mode that causes the internal systems to slow down. Metabolism slows to a pace that will conserve energy. Muscle loss tends to occur as the body cannibalizes its own muscle, which is protein, for energy. This usually happens on a total fast and generally does not occur with a reduced calorie regimen. Fasting for fat loss does not work because muscle is depleted before the fat.

By making a few minor adjustments in one's daily eating pattern, changes in physical appearance and overall health will result without taking drastic measures. At least 100 grams of carbohydrate daily are necessary for proper brain function, while 100 grams of protein will keep the body from consuming muscle.

An effective diet may not work well for everyone. A person's size, metabolism, lifestyle, and goals will determine the proper nutrients required for providing adequate energy. A sedentary person will require a different eating pattern than a long-distance runner. A runner needs plenty of carbohydrates for sustained energy. A bodybuilder needs extra protein for building muscle and fewer carbohydrates when he or she wants to get lean and defined. Some basic knowledge of nutrition can help one to make the correct choices to achieve personal goals. Carbohydrates are necessary in the diet for proper brain, heart, muscle, and vital organ functions.

There are three classifications of carbohydrates: mono-saccharides, disaccharide’s, and polysaccharides. These are glucose, table sugar or sucrose, and complex carbohydrates or starches, respectively. Carbohydrates are converted to glucose in the body. The brain is a voracious glucose consumer. A problem occurs when the carbohydrates consumed are more than enough for immediate energy. The excess is stored as fat.

Proteins are the "building blocks" of the body. Protein is broken down by the digestive system into amino acids which are used for building cells. Protein is the most important muscle building, insulin-regulating hormone. Your body can break down protein for energy if it needs to, but can not make proteins out of carbohydrates or fats.

Another well-known category of nutrients is fats. Fats act as a secondary source of energy after carbohydrates. Excess calories are stored in the body as fat. This can cause high blood pressure, heart disease, cancer, and other problems. Some fat is necessary to maintain healthy skin and hair, but fat intake must be kept at a reasonable level.

Although nutritional requirements will vary based on one's activity levels, here are a few guidelines towards becoming physically fit. First, exercise three to five times a week for thirty to forty minutes. Second, eat five to six smaller meals a day but limit fat intake to 10 to 20% of total calorie intake. Third, drink plenty of water. Fourth, eat only complex carbohydrates, and not simple sugars.

Proper nutrition can prevent various health problems. Cholesterol levels tend to be lower in individuals who exercise regularly and eat foods low in saturated fats. Those with tendencies towards high cholesterol levels should avoid saturated fats that are found in animal products. Regular exercise can prevent, as well as reduce, high blood pressure. Heart and lungs are also beneficiaries of regulated physical exertion. By adding exercise that includes a muscle building program, one's body will actually burn more calories even while sitting still. Muscles require more calories to maintain; therefore, a greater amount of calories are burned on muscular people than poorly muscled individuals. The bottom line is to avoid fad diets and develop healthy habits like exercise.


When one of your client’s is unwilling to follow a diet plan or their lifestyle does not allow them to pay attention to a strict menu, they may be a candidate for a commercial weight loss meal plan system. These popular companies put together calorie controlled meals and package them for use when convenient by the customer. Your clients can consume pre-packaged meals until they reach their weight loss goals. You also may become affiliated with a company that sells meal replacements. This system may help clients that are unable to adhere to a normal menu modification program. Although expensive, it may be the best solution for many clients who otherwise could not lose weight using conventional methods.


Although nutritional requirements will vary based on activity levels, here are a few basic guidelines for losing weight. In a nutshell: Exercise three to five times a week for thirty to forty minutes, eat five to six smaller meals a day, limit fat intake to 10 to 20% of total calorie intake, drink plenty of water, eat complex carbohydrates, and limit simple sugars.

Proper nutrition can prevent various health problems. Cholesterol levels tend to be lower in individuals who exercise regularly and eat low amounts of saturated fats. Those with tendencies towards high cholesterol levels should avoid saturated fats that are found in animal products. Regular exercise can prevent or reduce high blood pressure. Heart and lungs are also beneficiaries of regulated physical exertion. By adding exercise that includes a muscle building program, one's body will actually burn more calories even while sitting still. Muscle requires more calories to maintain; therefore, more calories are burned. Avoid fad diets while developing healthy habits like exercise.

Make a list of things that you do in your every day routine from the time you get up, until the time you go to bed. If you get up for a midnight snack, add that to the list. Write down whether or not you eat breakfast, what you eat, and if it changes on weekends. Map your entire day. Write down everything, including donuts at work or cookies and milk during coffee breaks. Once you’ve committed it to paper, you can start to analyze the problem areas, which tend to be habitual behaviors that are causing you to eat poorly during the day. The key to changing the behavior is is becoming aware of what it is that you need to change.

This menu represents some common dietary problems.

7am: No breakfast.

10am: Coffee break with 1-2 donuts, coffee with cream and sugar.

Noon: Lunch at the office cafeteria, usually a cheeseburger, or spaghetti, pint of milk, cake or pie for dessert.

2pm: Coffee with cream and sugar, cookies or left over donut

5pm: Dinner, could be pizza, chicken wings, or hot dogs & hamburgers, or leftovers. Ice cream for dessert.

8pm: Beer and buttered popcorn or potato chips.

10pm: Slice of cake or pie.

Now dissect the pattern, which is a good representation of the standard Western menu. First, by skipping breakfast and then eating a high sugar meal at morning break, the metabolism started to slow down. By consuming all that sugar, the blood insulin levels skyrocketed, and remained high, driving the sugar into storage areas of the body, muscles and the liver. Any excess was instantly stored as fat. It caused an energy surge, followed by lethargy. Lunch was high in fat and sugar, again giving a temporary energy surge, followed by a slump and drowsiness. The afternoon break gave another slight boost in energy, but lethargy set in and the rest of the night was spent soaking up calories in front of the tube, virtually inactive. That cycle assures no energy and plenty of fat storage.

This is called unconscious or programmed eating. It comes from being wisely denied desserts and sweets as a child, and finding out that as an adult you can consume anything as much and as often as you want. It is automatic behavior, so reprogramming yourself to consume certain foods or less food has got to become as ingrained and unconscious as your present automatic behavior. You have got to attack the problem from an unconscious perspective, and re-program yourself to enjoy healthy, energizing foods.

The way to reprogram yourself is to consciously eat less and select low calorie, low fat and sugar free foods for at least twenty one days. At the end of three weeks, the new eating pattern should stick. You will also have seen a great improvement in the way you look and feel, which will reinforce the positive changes you have made. It will be easy to maintain your new menu.


Actions taken or not taken shape your life. Goals are power. They're like a map. With them, you know exactly where you're going. Without goals, you will be tossed around by events like a leaf blown by the wind. You can let events control you, or you can start to control events this moment, by writing down your goals. Make a commitment to do something right now to take charge of your destiny. Take action this minute by writing down your goals and following through!

Old actions and behaviors I want to replace (example: procrastination, pessimism, and negativity):

If I keep doing what I'm doing now, where will I be in one year?

In five years?

In ten years?

New, positive goals (think BIG). Think about: career; relationships; finances; environment; contribution; lifestyle; education; health.

If I change one thing in a positive way now, where will I be in one year?

In five years?

In ten years?


There are many causes to weight gain, like pregnancy, illness, etc, and better reasons to lose it. Weight problems are often behavior related and must be solved through automatic sub-conscious changes combined with some education about foods and their effects on body fat levels. Sometimes, weight sneaks up on you, and one spring day, you realize that you’re too chubby. It went on without any effort on your part, but you did something on a consistent basis in order to gain the weight. It felt good to put on the weight and now through mental programming it will feel even better to drop it. Get to the point in your life where something absolutely must change and you must change it and you will change it.

Maybe you’ve been overweight all your life and now you are going to change all that. Perhaps your Doctor told you to lose some weight, without telling you how to lose it. Whatever the reason, once you’ve made the decision, how do you find the motivation to follow through? In my experience, it comes down to the habitual behavior that you follow each day, or your routine. Get leverage on yourself by committing your weight loss goals to friends and family. Make a pledge to lose weight by a certain date.

If you try to change just one thing like eating habits, you may be successful in the long run. If your morning starts with you eating a bowl of Honeycombs, then that’s the first thing you must alter. If it starts with no breakfast, then its time to add a healthy meal instead. By looking at what it is you do in your daily routine, you can analyze what to change.

Dieting is really about altering those daily behaviors that have brought to the brink of frustration. By moving toward new habits that reinforce your new lifestyle changes, you will achieve your goals. It is also about gearing up for an intense offensive for at least eight weeks in order to put the plan into permanent effect. Step by step you will alter the way you use food and avoid situations that cause you to eat, while substituting new, uplifting habits that allow you to become the person you really want to be. By doing these things you may not be happy forever, but you’ll be happy about the way you look, and comfortable with whom you are.


Mass building is accomplished with brief, heavy, high intensity training with long rest periods between sets and workouts. Note that cardio is for weight loss and will hinder mass gains (except for brief warm ups). Rest 1-3 minutes between sets. This trains the fast twitch muscle fibers. Note: Cardio is for weight loss and would not be included in a mass building routine.

Mass Training Routine

Muscle building requires multiple set, high intensity (HIT), split training to positive failure, or until another rep cannot be performed. Train each body part once per week. You may utilize a three-day, or a four-day split. Here is a powerful three-day split system for muscle building clients.


Quadriceps: leg press, squats, hack squats, leg extensions. Choose one exercise and do 5-8 sets of 12 to 6 reps.

Hamstrings: seated, standing or lying curl. Choose one exercise and do 5 sets of 12 to 6 reps.

Calf: standing, seated, donkey calf raise, toe presses. Choose one exercise and do 5-8 sets of 12-6 reps.


Chest: bench press, incline bench press, flat fly, incline fly, pec deck, machine press. Choose one exercise and do 5-8 sets of 12 to 6 reps.

Back: bar, dumbbell or cable or machine rows, pull downs, chins. Choose one exercise and do 5-8 sets of 12 to 6 reps.

Trapezius: bar or dumbbell or machine shrugs. Choose one exercise and do 3 sets of 12 to 6 reps.


Deltoids: bar, dumbbell or machine overhead press, or dumbbell side raises. Choose one exercise and do 5 sets of 12 to 6 reps.

Triceps: push downs, lying or overhead extensions, dips, close grip bench press. Choose one exercise and do 5 sets of 12 to 6 reps.

Biceps: bar, dumbbell, cable, machine or preacher curls. Choose one exercise and do 5 sets of 12 to 6 reps.

An effective four-day split grouping is thighs & hamstrings; back & abdominals; chest & calf; deltoids & arms.

Rest 1 minute between sets. This is an every other day routine, but may be modified to suit your schedule. Sleep 8 hours a night for recovery and follow a high protein diet by consuming five small meals a day.

Take every set to failure and try some partial reps after completing all you can in the full range. Flex the muscles after training them for a minute or two. Muscles adapt quickly to a common stress, so increase the weight or reps every session and vary the exercises constantly, especially if you’ve been training for several years. This creates an unusual demand on the muscular and nervous systems and keeps you from hitting a plateau, which means stymied progress. Do not exceed the recommended the recommended number of sets because it will lead to over training.


The most common mistake bodybuilders make in attempting to build bigger arms is over training them. They do to many sets and train them too often. The arms are used in every upper body exercise, and therefore receive tremendous stimulation, which makes them prone to over training. Over training makes the arms shrink, not grow. Do only 5 to 8 sets each for biceps and triceps, and only three for forearms.

There are literally hundreds of arm exercises, so use them all, but not in the same workout. Choose only one exercise and do 5-8 sets, which is enough to stimulate growth without over training Work the arms only once every 2-3 days. Remember that you train them on every time you grab a weight.

Record in your notebook the time you start and end, the exercise, weight, and the number of sets and reps performed. Since you may not do the same exercise again for several weeks, you will need a reference guide.

Best exercises:

Triceps: push downs, lying or overhead extensions, dips, close grip bench press. Choose one and do 5-8 sets of 12 to 6 reps.

Biceps: bar, cable, dumbbell or preacher curls. Choose one and do 5-8 sets of 12 to 6 reps.

Biceps and triceps exercises are good super set combinations (one exercise combined with another with no rest in between).

Forearms: reverse curls and wrist curls with a bar, dumbbells or machines.

Choose one and do 3 sets of 12 to 6 reps.

Rest 1 - 3 minutes between sets or super sets. Sleep 8 hours a night

For recovery, and follow a high protein diet.

Intensity techniques: add partial (strongest range) reps after completing as many traditional full range reps as possible, then try a controlled holding and lowering set, without resting, in between each series.


Choose one exercise from the list and do the recommended sets for that day. Train legs once every 5 to 8 days. Rest 1 - 3 minutes between sets for mass.

Quadriceps: leg press (use one or two legs) squats, hacks squats, lunges, and leg extensions. Pick one exercise and do 7-10 sets of 12 to 6 reps.

Hamstrings: any kind of leg curl, or stiff leg dead lift, or top end dead lift. Do 5-7 sets of 12 to 6 reps.

Calf: standing, seated, donkey calf raise, toe press, one leg calf raise. Choose one and do 5-8 sets of 12 to 15 reps.

Hang from a chinning bar and stretch after you have completed your training. Remember to stretch the low back, too.

Intensity techniques: add partial (strongest range) reps after completing as many traditional full range reps as possible, then try a controlled holding and lowering set without resting in between each series.


To build mass you need to eat at least 1 gram of protein per - pound of desired body weight, per - day. If you want to weigh 200, then you have to eat 200 grams of protein each day. Let's see what kind of menu would deliver the 200 figure. First, some rules. Eat once every three to three-and-a-half hours. It takes that long for the last meal to move out of the stomach. If you eat too soon, the food that you've already eaten will stop digesting, and the whole thing starts all over again. Protein can actually remain in the intestines undigested for as long as two days.

7:00 AM: 12 egg whites (50 g. prot.), 4 slices of toast, large orange juice, multivitamin/mineral tab, 3 liver tabs, 3 amino tabs, digestive enzyme.

10:00 AM: Snack: 8-10 oz. cottage cheese or a protein drink. 3 liver and 3 amino's. If this meal is eaten before training, add a banana. Provides about 30-g. protein.

1:00 PM: 8 oz. chicken or steak, 2 baked potatoes or 1 cup pasta, salad or steamed vegetables, 3 liver, 3 amino's, enzymes. Provides about 50-g. protein.

4:00 PM: Snack: same as AM snack.

7:00 PM: Supper: Same meal as lunch.

10:00 PM: 5 egg whites.

This menu allows about 200 grams of protein, about 40 grams of fat, and

about 350 grams of carbohydrate. Total calories are roughly 3000.

If you can be this meticulous about eating, then you will reap the rewards of increased muscle mass. Use creatine and DHEA every day after each meal, but cycle them on a two-week on, two week off schedule for greatest benefit, and so you don’t develop a tolerance to them. Don't let yourself get hungry during the day, and modify the schedule based on your daily routine. Eat every three hours, except when sleeping.


1. Creatine, load 5 grams 4 times per day for 5 days, then drop to twice a day. This can produce gains of 5 pounds of muscle in 3 days!

2. DHEA, 100 mg. 3 times per day, including one tab 1/2 hour before training, one before breakfast, and one at night. Elevates testosterone levels in the body.

3. Flaxseed & Fish Oil, are both good fats, or lipids, which are testosterone precursors, the building blocks of testosterone in the body.

4. Tribulus, try 100 mg. twice daily to boost testosterone levels.

5. Digestive Enzymes, one or two tablets with each meal for maximum utilization.

6. Whey or Egg Protein Powder, use one or two scoops 3 times per day between meals for best results.

7. Multivitamin/Mineral Pack, take one packet daily for good health. Everyone should be taking a multivitamin/mineral anti-oxidant supplement, especially hard training athletes.

8. Desiccated Liver Tablets; take 5-10 tabs 1 hour before training for endurance. Before steroids, athletes used liver tabs to get big. They still work.

9. Amino Acid Tablets or Liquid; take 5-10 tabs 1 hour before training, or drink a tablespoon right before training.

Follow a high protein diet of about 1-gram of protein per pound of desired body weight to gain muscle. Anyone who follows this program should be able to pack on 10 pounds of muscle in 2 to 4 weeks, while losing five pounds of fat at the same time.


Protein and supplement intake is of paramount importance for building increased muscle size. Timing is as crucial as what is consumed. Here are some supplements that can accelerate the muscle building process. Ten-50 grain desiccated liver tablets and three-1000 mg amino acid tabs three times daily will increase protein levels in the body. Consuming a high protein, high calorie meal or protein/sugar drink prior to, and immediately after a workout will elevate protein and insulin levels during training. Protein and glucose uptake by the muscles is elevated during and after workouts. Additionally, testosterone and growth hormone levels increase during intense exercise, creating an even more anabolic (muscle building) state. Adding 2-4 tablespoons of creatine and 100 mg. of DHEA or one of the testosterone boosters before exercising will create even more rapid muscle growth. Always consume 2000 mg of flaxseed oil and 2000 mg of fish oil one hour before training sessions because muscle-building hormones are assembled from the good fatty acids that they contain.


Toning is a generic term that means losing a few pounds of body fat while building enough muscle to develop a defined and trained look. These clients will not train to failure, but will only "pump" the muscles with an easy weight. Train the entire body each session because the toning client will tend to miss at least 1 training session per week.


Here is a routine for a man or woman who wants to trim down and focus on the upper body and abdominals. Train the entire body on an alternating three-day a week schedule training as a circuit with little or no rest between exercises. Select one exercise per muscle group from the following list for each training day. Rotate them from session to session. That keeps the routine exciting, while each exercise builds strength for the next session. Select an easy weight. This trains the intermediate twitch muscle fibers.

ABDOMINALS: Crunches or reverse crunches. Do 3 sets of 20.

QUADS: Leg extension, squats, leg press, hack squats. Choose one and do 3 sets of 8 reps.

HAMSTRINGS: Any leg curl. 3 sets of 8 reps.

CALF: Toe press, seated calf raise, standing calf raise, donkey calf raise. Choose one and do 3 sets of ten reps.

BACK: Pull downs, bar row, cable row, dumbbell row, chin-ups. Again, choose one and do 3 sets of 8 reps.

CHEST: Bench press, incline press, flies, pec deck, machine press. Choose 1 and do 3 sets of 8 reps.

SHOULDERS: Over head press, side dumbbell raise, upright row, shrugs. Choose one and do 3 sets of 8 reps.

TRICEPS: Close grip bench press, dips, push downs, triceps press, and dumbbell kickbacks. Choose one and do 3 sets of 8 reps.

BICEPS: Bar curls, dumbbell curls, preacher curls, or machine curls.

Choose one and do 3 sets of 8 reps.

Rest one minute between sets.

Follow a balanced low-fat diet while increasing protein levels slightly. Breakfast should include 20-30g. of protein. Eliminate fast food, junk food, alcohol and late night snacks. Always include a multivitamin/mineral supplement.


Occasionally you will have individuals that don’t seem to be responding well to the training protocol previously described for achieving their goals. You may have tried everything. If it is a woman who wants to lose weight and you have used the high volume approach and cardio, first check her diet. She’s either cheating or pregnant! If everything looks okay, cut down the reps and use a slow continuous tension system or step up the cadence of the reps. This change may be enough to shock her body into responding again. Add a little more cardio to the routine as well. If she has been using the bike, put her on the treadmill and vice-versa. Move the routine around and try everything until you get her results! That’s why she hired you in the first place. Flexibility is the key to being successful with tough problems.

If a trainee wants to add mass, but is not making progress check protein levels. The lack of results is almost always related to diet rather than training when someone fails to respond to what you are doing in the gym. Stress how important diet is to each client and make sure they follow through every day with their eating when you are not around to monitor them.


If a client has been in a wheelchair or is otherwise limited in his or her capacity to exercise, you will have a special challenge requiring an innovative approach to his or her training. The individual may not be able to grasp a bar or have access to equipment. They usually have limited range of motion on exercise movements.

Your best bet is to use your hands as resistance on their limbs by employing a variety of techniques, including isometrics. Get their permission first before you start pushing and pulling on them all over. Don’t work them too hard the first few sessions. Try to make them feel comfortable with you and the movements. Experiment with high reps, partial range training, low reps, and apply resistance anywhere you can. Mimic nautilus machine pullovers, curls, side dumbbell raises, rowing, bench presses, shoulder presses, hammer curls, flyes, and shoulder shrugs, as if you were the machine. You both may be surprised at how much you can do together.

There is a line of motorized exercise equipment that moves the arms and legs through different exercises automatically. Individuals who use this equipment actually lose weight even though they are not exerting any force.

Even a non-responsive leg will improve in muscle tone if it is pumped rhythmically by an outside force. You can move a person’s legs manually to mimic leg extensions or leg presses. This low level of stimulation will actually build muscle tone even though there may be no feeling in the legs.

Manipulation training works especially well if a short range of motion limits a limb. Stretching and gradually increasing range of motion drills will bring about dramatic increases in his or her ability to perform every day movements with relative ease. Six months of strength training usually will cause strength to triple and range of motion to increase. Added muscle mass, fat loss in overweight individuals and weight gain in thin clients will be the result.


An aerobic component of training can be accomplished by stepping up the pace at which one-weight trains. Studies have shown that fat burning is increased for up to eight hours after high resistance training with weights. There is no residual fat loss effect with low intensity aerobics, employing a piece of cardio equipment like a treadmill. But the calories burned during the activity help weight loss over the long run.

The goal for heart fitness is to keep the heart rate at about 70% of your maximum heart rate for 20 minutes at least 3 times a week. The formula for figuring out your maximum heart rate is 220 minus age. If a client is 20 years old, the maximum heart rate is 200 beats per minute. 70% of 200 is 140, so 140 beats per minute is the proper training zone.

Adults should get a total of 30 minutes or more of physical activity every day. For fitness benefits adults should do 20 to 60 minutes of continuous aerobic activity, three to five days a week at 60 to 90 percent maximum heart rate using the major muscle groups.

To determine if the client is in the zone:

Have them walk normally for 5 minutes, walk briskly for 5 minutes, and resume the normal pace for another 5 minutes.

Stop and take the pulse in the wrist. Never use the neck, a piece of fat may become loose and cause a stroke or the client may pass out.

Count the beats for 10 seconds and multiply the number by 6.

Target heart rate chart:

20 years: 100-150 beats per minute
25 years: 98-146 beats per minute
30 years: 95-142 beats per minute
35 years: 93-138 beats per minute
40 years: 90-135 beats per minute
45 years: 88-131 beats per minute
50 years: 85-127 beats per minute
55 years: 83-123 beats per minute
60 years: 80-120 beats per minute
65 years: 78-116 beats per minute
70 years: 75-113 beats per minute

Never take the pulse by pressing on the neck-always use the wrist. You may dislodge a piece of fat and cause a stroke when using the neck as a pulse point or the client may pass out.

Some trainees may not be able to do much more than walk on the treadmill.

In that case, just stand next to them and provide some lighthearted chat. You will keep them entertained and provide the best pace for cardiovascular fitness and weight loss. If they can hold a conversation without becoming breathless, then they are generally training at the right pace.

The elliptical machines are the next step in cardio equipment. They replace the knee damaging, anaerobic (using sugar for energy instead of fat) stair climber machine, and provide a great aerobic workout. If you have access to one, incorporate it into your client’s training. The best way to keep clients excited about training is to rotate the treadmill, stationary bike, and elliptical trainer. The treadmill, stationary bike, and elliptical trainer are low intensity in comparison to the Step machines. Clients can try a different unit every day to avoid boredom.

Fast running is anaerobic hard on the joints and lower back. Try to discourage it. Walking at a fast pace up an incline is much more effective when the goals are weight loss and training longevity.


Once you have had the client fill out the health questionnaire, waiver, personal training assessment form and Ten Commandments of Personal Training handout, it’s time to train the client. Where do you begin? First of all the diets, questionnaires and routines above are designed to be handouts for your clients. Make sure to distribute those forms so you can help educate them about fitness. It also will project an image of professionalism. Refer back to the handouts now and then while you train.


Some trainer certification programs advocate fitness tests, but the physical activity questionnaire negates the need for a standardized fitness test, if answered honestly.

Since you only have to determine whether your client has the ability to execute the routine that you are providing, the fitness test should be his or her actual first workout as your client. You’ll know exactly how much they can tolerate if you just pay close attention to their response to the initial training session.

Start out with one set of each exercise with an extremely light weight. This initial session should last no more than ten minutes if the client has never trained or has not recently worked out. Have your client perform only ten reps per set of each exercise with an empty bar even if they can do more, unless they are already an advanced strength athlete. They have the rest of their lives to lift a thousand pounds if they desire, but let them know that both or you must understand their training level today, so that you can establish a proper training schedule for them. If they are already advanced exercisers and have been training regularly, then you can jump right in at their intensity level. They will have to tell you what they are used to doing and you can keep them motivated while making impartial suggestions.

Observe your client’s physiology during the initial session and continually ask for their feedback about how they feel. Ask if they are dizzy, short of breath, etc., especially if they are seniors or severely overweight. You don’t want someone to pass out, which can easily happen to an unconditioned individual. If a client’s skin color turns pale or grayish, stop the workout immediately and have them sit down and get a drink of water. Better to err on the side of caution.


It is important to be concerned with correctly spotting clients. A ruling in a court case from the Superior Court of New Jersey mandated that spotters are liable for injuries sustained to weightlifters, even if the injury occurs because of equipment lying around on the floor. In this case, a spotter was sued for negligence after a person was injured by a weight lying next to the bench.

The defendant (spotter) volunteered to spot the plaintiff during weight training. When the plaintiff (weightlifter) put his dumbbells on the floor, his left index finger was smashed when the weight in his left hand came into contact with a weight on the floor. The plaintiff provided expert testimony to the court citing various standards of care, including those from the National Strength and Conditioning Association, that says:
It is a spotter's obligation to examine the area around the weightlifter to ensure other objects, including other free weights, are not within the area of activity.

The defendant filed a motion for a summary judgment saying that he should not be held liable to the injured lifter. The motion was denied. The court ruled in favor of the plaintiff and decided that, "a reasonable jury could conclude, “The defendant voluntarily assumed a duty by 'spotting' for the plaintiff. Incorporated in that duty of care is the obligation to ensure the area around the weight bench was clear of any hazards."

By ruling this way, the court mandated that spotters have an obligation to inspect around the area where weight-training activities occur to determine if there are weights or objects in the area that could cause injury. Even volunteer spotters may have liability under certain circumstances and a person who assumes a duty to another needs to ensure that that duty will be adequately performed. Those who provide spotting activities even as volunteers should become familiar with the obligations imposed upon spotters by written standards of care and guidelines pertaining to the activities. The best way to learn how to spot correctly is to observe others training in the gym and to look at exercise photos in books and magazines. Exercise videos are also a good source of spotting pointers.

Usually the person training will tell you how they want you to spot them. Your job is to keep them from getting injured by the weight. The general rule for spotting on a specific exercise is that you provide just enough lift to keep the weight moving - don't let it stall. If it gets stuck keep it going up smoothly. When spotting someone doing squats, you may have to put your arms under their arms and around the front to lightly stabilize them and help lift if they get stuck.
Never spot squatters from the hips or waist or they may bend at the waist and fall forward with the weight bar rolling dangerously over their neck and head.


Exercise technique is as varied as individuals. You have an obligation to teach clients correct exercise form that will not cause injury. Throwing weights around in a sloppy manner will not build much muscle, but may tear a muscle. The GAS dictates that a component of continued progress is to vary the lifting count. A very slow count of up to ten seconds up and ten seconds down with a heavy weight for about 5-8 reps is excellent for building muscle mass. Bob Gruskin, NABBA-USA President and trainer of sixteen Mr. Americas and a dozen Mr. Universes including the great Jeff King, always had his champions use a strict, painfully slow up and down lifting technique. Their success speaks volumes for this system.

At the other end of the spectrum is the fast, explosive technique where the weight is lifted at a one count up and one count down cadence. Top pro bodybuilders like Arnold Schwarzenegger, Shawn Ray and Bob Cicherillo employ this system with excellent results. As long as your clients are controlling the weight instead of the weight controlling them, you can utilize any cadence. A variety of training speeds will produce better results than the same lifting speed employed all the time. If a weight is obviously too heavy, lighten it. Sometimes clients will try to lift more than they are capable of for their ego’s sake. You must advise them that proper form with a lighter weight will yield greater muscle building benefits.

Certain exercises may cause injuries and damage to joints over a prolonged period of months and years. None of your clients should ever do side bends, which are injurious to the lower back. Additional traumatic exercises to avoid are upright rows, behind the neck presses and pull downs, full range pullovers, full sit ups, Roman chair sit ups or leg raises, dead lifts and full range stiff legged dead lifts. Avoid these exercises for the sake of client longevity. Hyper extensions where the body is extended up past parallel to the floor are also injurious and should never be performed past parallel. Dumbbell flyes with excessive weight may wrench the client’s arms down too quickly and dislocate the shoulder or tear a muscle. Always spot clients from their wrists when they do flyes, not the elbow.


Trainer beware - training your clients is customer service. You have a solemn duty to provide a minimum quality of care for them, which means you must not hurt them with improper training methods. It demonstrates incompetence at best and criminal malfeasance if taken to the extreme illustrated below. There is an exact system for training any client who comes to you and very seldom does it involve HIT training.

You have probably seen supposedly certified trainers pushing overweight clients through a torturous, high intensity (HIT) workout that would cause a well trained NFL linebacker to vomit.

The absurdity and inappropriateness of this kind of training system (for anyone except military boot camp inductees or pro football players) is obvious to everyone in the room except the trainer. Although the client may voice misgivings about the intensity level, they fall on deaf ears. It is the trainer's way or the highway. An illustration of this scenario might play out like this:

A twenty-ish girl, fifty pounds overweight is placed under a squat bar, crouched beneath a too-heavy weight (which is a pure mass building movement that provides no value as a weight loss aid, whatsoever). The trainer may then proceed to the flat bench and force the girl to awkwardly step up onto it while holding a twenty five pound plate in each hand. At this point her face will look like a thermometer ready to pop. You may seriously wonder if you will be called to testify in court after her cardiovascular accident. If she survives the session she will never return to the gym again, if such methods are required for her to reach her weight loss goals. They are not, by the way, as you have learned.

You may be surprised that a club, which may be part of a well known chain, would allow its staff to injure their customers in such a way. That trainer could be charged with battery, and rightly so, because a certain level of care must be met when training clients. The trainer and club would be held civilly and criminally liable if the client were injured by the negligent trainer.

HIT is only for extreme athletes and bodybuilders, not keep fitters or the weight loss crowd. Weight droppers require light weights and longer duration sets - a high volume, low intensity system, which provides excellent results and injury prevention. When training your clients, do not think that working them like they are contestants on "The Biggest Loser" is correct just because it's on TV. That's all for show. The real life training environment must be carefully controlled by you, the trainer, and exercise must be precisely applied to achieve the weight loss goals of your clients both safely and effectively.

You could utilize role models as a guide to correct training system selection even if you had not already learned correct training techniques from this certification course. By modeling lean athletes and their methods we can determine that high volume, long duration competitors like marathon runners are lean and not bulky. Extrapolating that idea into a workable regimen to help your clients lose weight, you would therefore have them perform long, light sets of very high repetitions, mimicking the distance runners.

Wrestlers and NFL players are massive and train explosively, choosing heavy weights as tools of choice, similar to the girl mentioned above. Therefore we can determine that heavy weights and brief, high intensity training sessions are the rule for building muscle mass, not weight loss.

This is not the only instance of wrong methods exhibited by trainers that you may have noticed. Take note of another example. A so-called trainer is urging an elderly client to jump with a weight on his shoulders, twist awkwardly with heavy weights held at arms length, heave a too-ponderous weighted ball and jump sideways over benches, in a routine that can only be described as confusing.

This fitness technician is surrounded by millions of dollars worth of state of the art exercise equipment, but has determined that a senior who wants to shape up will receive much greater benefit from his peculiar system, rather than that all that gleaming, state of the art machinery lying around.

When you have the pleasure of bringing a client into the midst of a wonderfully equipped club and then neglect to utilize any of the technology around you, you have done a disservice to that client. When you have decided to train your weight loss or toning clients as if they were athletes, you have not provided the quality of care level required, either.

One day a client at one of these clubs is going to drop dead from heart failure because an uneducated trainer pushed him or her too hard. Don't be that trainer!


By taking action and writing down the names and numbers of twenty people you know you could have your first client signed up today. The key is to contact each person on your list and inform them that you are a certified personal trainer now, and that you are accepting new clients. Some of these people may even be looking for a trainer, but do not know where to find one.


1. NAME___________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

2. NAME___________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

3. NAME___________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

4. NAME___________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

5. NAME___________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

6. NAME___________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

7. NAME___________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

8. NAME___________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

9. NAME___________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

10. NAME__________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

11. NAME__________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

12. NAME__________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

13. NAME__________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

14. NAME__________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

15. NAME__________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

16. NAME__________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

17. NAME__________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

18. NAME__________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

19. NAME__________________________________ PHONE____________________________________

20. NAME__________________________________ PHONE____________________________________


Your Company Name

Your Company Street

Town, State and Zip

Your Phone Number

Your e-mail address

Personal Training Enrollment Form

Today’s Date: _____/_____/_____ Start Date: _____/_____/_____ Time ______________________

Training Location_____________________________________________________________________

Amount $ USD Payment Method: Check____ Money Order_____Credit Card______

Credit Card Information (if Payment Method is Credit Card)

Accepted Cards: Visa MasterCard Amex Discover

Number_______________________________________________ Exp. Date_______________________

Customer Billing Information (as it appears on credit card)

First name _________________________________________

Last name _________________________________________

City _________________________________________

State/Province ______________________________________

Zip Code _________________________________________

Country _________________________________________

Phone _________________________________________

E-mail _________________________________________

Client name and full mailing address (if different)

First name _________________________________________

Last name _________________________________________

Address _________________________________________

Note: There is a 24-hour cancellation policy. If the client cancels 24 hour or more before the training session, the client will not be billed for the missed session. If the client cancels less than 24 hours before the training session, the full fee will be charged.












10. ___________________________________________________________________________________

11. ___________________________________________________________________________________

12. ___________________________________________________________________________________

13. ___________________________________________________________________________________

14. ___________________________________________________________________________________

15. ___________________________________________________________________________________

16. ___________________________________________________________________________________

17. ___________________________________________________________________________________

18. ___________________________________________________________________________________

19. ___________________________________________________________________________________

20. ___________________________________________________________________________________

21. ___________________________________________________________________________________

22. ___________________________________________________________________________________

23. ___________________________________________________________________________________

24. ___________________________________________________________________________________

25. ___________________________________________________________________________________

PT Telemarketing Script

After the second or third training session with a new client (while they’re still enthused about training), ask if you can use them as a referral. Call all their neighbors and let them know that you train their neighbor down the street (let the prospects know your client’s name and house number). All you’re trying to do over the phone is get a face to face appointment so that you can close them. Don’t try to close them over the phone. See the phone telemarketing script below. This system is a powerful business generator when implemented as written.

This telemarketing phone script for works well when used as a tool for generating face to face appointments. It’s also great for informing old clients about your new specials. Keep in mind that a phone call is always an interruption. Smile while you talk, it comes across on the phone. Keep the conversation short and to the point.

Salesperson: “Hi, is Joe there?”

Customer: “This is Joe.”

Salesperson: “Joe Shmoe?” You’ve now used their name twice - people’s names are important to them.

Customer: “Yes”

Salesperson: “How are you today?” (Gives you an idea of their availability.)

You: “This is (Name) from (company or business name). “Have you heard of us?”

Customer: “Yes, “ or “No.”

Make a big, exciting positive statement about your company or special no matter what their answer.

You: “Who we are is (company or personal trainer) and what we do is (positive statement), and what that means to you is (you’ll save money - get great results - lose weight for vacation - say anything that motivates them to invite you over).”

Ask permission to ask them a question:

You: Can I ask you a question? They will always say “Yes.”

Is (saving money - getting in shape - losing weight) something that would be important to you? They will tell you if it is important or not. If none of your pitches is important to them ask them, “ What is most important to you in a personal trainer or fitness routine?”

They will tell you.

If they say, “convenience,” reinforce how convenient your scheduling system is. If they say, flexibility,” key in on how you can accommodate any schedule. If they say “privacy,” tell them how private your facility is.

Once they have told you what is most important to them let them know that their choice is a major benefit of your service.

Give them appointment options by saying, “Is Wednesday at three or Saturday at noon better for me to stop by? Then listen for their response. They will give you an alternate time or hang up. If you can get them to commit to an appointment, you have won the battle. The hardest part of getting clients is having them actually meet you.

The action you are trying to get the person to take is to set up an appointment to hear you outline all the benefits of your service. You must then employ the sales techniques below to close the client.

PT Sales Script

Write down a list of benefits associated with your personal training service and memorize it. You must constantly test close during your meeting with a client. A test close is an opinion-asking question that provides options like, “In your opinion, would a three month or yearly training membership work better for you if you were going to join today?” A closing question is a decision making question like, “Are you joining for six or twelve months?” Or, “Are you paying by credit card or cash?” They may be ready to sign up. Sign them up and work out the details later.

You must frequently use the key words “or” or “because,” because those words induce a sales mentality in the customer. Studies have shown that these words can induce a low-level trance in the American consumer, making him or her more receptive to your sales presentation.

A sales person needs to develop a pattern of answers that almost force the individual into purchasing a membership. Getting the customer to commit to a series of minor actions will make them feel compelled to sign up at the end. Avoid yes or no closing questions.

When you meet the potential client say hello in a friendly voice and use a test closing question: “Hi, I’m (name), thanks for inviting me over.” “Are you ready to enroll in our three-month or yearly training package special today?”

If the customer says yes, have them fill out the paper work and decide on the type of training plan. Set the schedule after they sign up. Many are ready to join without any sales pitch.

If the customer says, “I just want some information.” Start your sales script. Always use the exact script language.

Initiate the conversation by asking, “How did you hear about our salon (unless they were a prospect you telemarketed)?”

Ask them the question: “What’s most important to you in a personal training salon?” Listen for their response.

If they say, “convenience,” reinforce how convenient your scheduling system is. If they say, “flexibility,” key in on how you can accommodate any schedule. If they say “privacy,” tell them how private your facility is.

You answer: “Then you’ve come to the right place. The benefits to you are…” (always sell positive benefits and emotional reasons, never logical reasons for buying) that we have the (most private – most convenient – most flexible scheduling – whatever they say, state it back to them as a positive benefit).

If they have come to your salon, show them around and have them actually try each piece of equipment. Hand them a bottle of water as you start the tour. It will induce the reciprocation process. Since you have given them something of value, they will feel compelled to reciprocate by purchasing a personal training package. Walk them over to the best, showcase equipment and let them sit in it and experience its action, while pointing out the benefits of your service over any other available services.

Escort them to a quiet area or office dedicated to closing sales. All paperwork should be on a clipboard ready for signing. The salon floor should be uncluttered, bright and exciting with popular, but not annoying, or blaring music.

Overcoming Objections

There are many methods for overcoming objections. Use the following list in this order until all their objections are overcome.

The first method is to ignore the objection. If they say “That price is too high”, ignore it and continue the presentation.

You can dismiss it quickly by saying, “Why don’t we go over your special discount in a minute.”

You can also reflect their objection back to them by restating their objection as a question, “Too high?’’ That will prompt them to give you more information about their objection. Finish by asking, “Is there any other reason not mentioned here why you wouldn’t get started today?” When they tell you their objection, use the system for overcoming objections in this order for each of the new objections. If the client says, “Well, I’ll have to check with my wife/husband,” ask them, “What would they say if they were here now?” Then get on with the paperwork.

The third option is to overcome the objection by saying something like; “The price is half as much as the average training rates in this city.” If your rates are higher than average say, “Isn’t it true that you get what you pay for?”

A final resort if you are losing the sale (which only works if you have developed good rapport) is to say, ”I’ll have to check the health questionnaire and see you can qualify.” It puts prospects on the defensive and causes them to explain why they are qualified.

When filling out the paperwork and contracts, always ask the questions and fill in the answers yourself. When it comes time to sign contracts, never use the word “sign,“ instruct new clients to “just write your name by the X’s.”

When everything is completed, congratulate the new client for making a wise choice and talk about how they have taken the first step toward meeting their future fitness goals. Projecting the satisfaction and value the client will experience (by hiring a personal trainer) into the future will calm any potential buyer’s remorse.


A rule to remember as you establish yourself in the industry and build a steady client base is put the welfare and feelings of your clients above your natural inclination to push them hard during their workouts, so they do not quit or become injured. The vast majority of your clients will not require high intensity training and will achieve fabulous results without ever training to failure. Intensity is an excellent technique for mass building. Low intensity, long duration, high volume workouts are best for losing fat, especially when coupled with diet. Remember that high intensity and heavy weight builds bulk, high volume (amount) training and light weights burn fat, with little mass increase. Understand the correct method to apply to your client’s objectives, and be flexible enough to change as their needs and goals change.

Counseling the client on proper diet and nutrition principals is very simple. When trying to build muscle and lose body fat, you must consume more protein and fewer fats and carbohydrates. You now have many excellent handouts that you may give your clients explaining nutrition and losing weight.

To recap, for those wishing to add muscle mass or bulk, the exercises employed are often the same as for weight loss, but the execution is different. Weight loss routines are light weight, high volume, low intensity, and mass routines are high intensity, low to medium volume with progressively heavier weights. Toning routines are low intensity pumping affairs. You now have exercise and diet handouts that will produce results for anyone, and they are flexible enough to meet special needs that your trainees may have.

You are going to be able to make positive, life changing improvements in your clients’ lives. There is nothing so rewarding as seeing someone lose eighty pounds because of the help that you have provided. Just use common sense. Don’t place yourself into a compromising situation by promising more than you can deliver. Make the client realize that he or she is the person responsible for the results, and you are only there to coach them, and if you work together as a team, the benefits of training will accrue.

I can’t wait to hear from you about how your new business is doing!

God bless.

Gregory Ladd, President

American Muscle & Fitness


Hand your exam in to the instructor, or mail your answers, name and mailing address to: American Muscle & Fitness, 1436 State Road, Webster, NY 14580, USA. You can also email your answers to exams@amfpt.com and amfpt@aol.com. You will be notified by e-mail, phone or mail with your score. Please do not copy sections from the manual and submit them as your exam essay answers because it is automatic failure. In addition to having thorough and correct length essay answers, you must get all multiple choice answers correct to receive an "A." Each wrong multiple choice answer drops your score one full letter grade. Four answers wrong equals automatic failure. The essay answers are there to provide you with three practical scripts that can help you in your training business. They are designed so that you can demonstrate your understanding of the material presented in this course. Each essay answer counts as twenty five percent of your grade.

Your essays must be in your own words. Short quotes are usually used only to back up statements or conclusions that you make in your essay. You may quote from any source as long as you use footnotes, or clearly cite the source, and as long as your essays are not made up entirely of quotes, graphs and routines taken from other sources. You can make reference to the different handouts that your clients would receive from the manuals by name. Each essay answer must be at least 300 words in length. An "A" or higher score will be noted on your letter of recommendation. Duplicate or copied exams are reason for automatic failure. By submitting your exam you attest that you are submitting your own work under penalty of perjury.







Place an X by the correct multiple choice answer (note that you cannot write on the web page, but you can copy the questions into an email or document to mark them). You may also submit your multiple choice answers like this:

1. 1

2. 2

3. 3

4. 4


1. Based on the reading, what would you have each client fill out before you begin training them?

1. A health questionnaire and waiver

2. A personal training questionnaire

3. The Ten Commandments of Personal Training

4. All of the above

2.  To set up your business, what must you register for at the county clerk's office?

1. BBA

2. DAD

3. DBA

4. FDA

3.  The V-shaped muscles of the back are the:

1. Pectorals major and minor

2. Quadriceps

3. Latisimus Dorsi

4. Biceps

4.  The chest muscles are the:

1. Triceps

2. Teres major and minor

3. Rhomboids

4. Pectorals major and minor

5. The deltoids:

1. Raise the arm

2. Pull the arm down to the side

3. Curl the forearm up

4. Draw the rib cage to the hips

6.  To stand on tiptoe the muscles used are the____________.

1. quadriceps

2. hamstring

3. gastrocnemeus

4. glutes

7. Muscles always ________ to cause motion.

1. push on levers

2. pull on levers

3. bend

4. straighten

8. What are the three basic muscle fiber types discussed in the reading?

1. Fast, medium, slow

2. Super, supercilious, noncilius

3. Cornea, patella fumorate

4. Sharp, medium, dull

9. A weight loss routine must be__________.

1. high intensity

2. low volume

3. high volume

4. none of the above

10. High volume training increases the number and size of___________.

1. ATP

2. mitochondria

3. glucose

4. insulin

11. The stationary bike, elliptical trainer and treadmill are better cardio choices than the stair climber is because they are_______________.

1. high intensity

2. low intensity

3. automatic

4. manual

12. Clients want to be _________during a training session.

1. abused

2. badmouthed

3. listened to

4. cursed at

13. A trainer should find out the client's ____________history before training him or her.

1. health

2. driving

3. address

4. work

14. Fast twitch muscles are trained with ________weight.

1. heavy

2. light

3. both of the above

4. none of the above

15. Volume, when applied to training, means___________.

1. amount

2. size

3. sound

4. loudness

16. For losing fat which is the best method?

1. Diet

2. Diet and exercise

3. Exercise

4. Cardio

17. The best response to training comes from___________.

1. using the same exercises all the time

2. using different exercises every workout

3. using only machines

4. using only free weights

18. When taking someone's pulse you should never use the_______.

1. wrist

2. neck

3. chest

4. stethoscope

19. Sugar causes a rise in blood_____________.

1. alcohol

2. hormones

3. enzymes

4. insulin

20. To build muscle clients should eat more ___________.

1. protein

2. carbohydrates

3. fats

4. H2O

21. Before touching a client, a trainer must get ___________.

1. a lawyer

2. their phone number

3. permission

4. help

22. A personal trainer must never ___________.

1. help a client

2. ask for referrals

3. discuss steroids with clients

4. schedule appointments

23. A personal trainer is a ___________.

1. fitness technician

2. emergency medical technician

3. nurse

4. medical doctor



FOR EACH QUESTION WRITE AT LEAST A 300 WORD ESSAY BASED ON THE PT MANUAL READING MATERIAL outlining the routines, sets, exercises, diet and schedule you would recommend for the client. Assume each client is in good health. Check your grammar and spelling. Your essays must be in your own words. Do not copy sections from the manual and submit them as your exam essay answers. Essays may be longer than 300 words.

Model your routines after this example:

Bench Press 3 sets of 8 reps
Pull downs 3 sets of 8 reps


Leg Extension 3 sets of 8 reps




Leg Press 1 set of 100 reps

Bench Press 1 set of 100 reps


Diets are like this model:

Breakfast - 7am: Eggs, Toast, Juice

Lunch - 12 noon:

Dinner - 5pm

Supplements -


Explanations are: The reason I recommend this is because ... it increases the number and size of mitochondria; trains slow/fast/intermediate twitch muscle fibers; etc. They must include the muscle fiber types.


1. Design a routine for a forty-year-old woman whose goal is to lose 20 pounds of fat without "getting too big." Base your routine on the routine for weight loss in the PT Manual. Include routines, sets, reps, exercises, diet and supplements you recommend. How many days per week should she train? Note that you cannot include a low rep, multiple set per exercise, bodybuilding-split routine as your answer. Additionally, an overweight, middle aged woman will not do: burpees, squat thrusts, step ups onto a bench, running, sprinting, rope jumping, jump squats or boxing, which are for athletes. Explain your reasons for making these recommendations and include the muscle fiber type trained. (300 words or more)

2. Design a routine for a twenty-year-old man whose goal is to gain weight and build muscle mass. Base your routine on the routine for mass building in the PT Manual. Include routines, sets, reps, exercises, diet and supplements you recommend. How many days per week should he train? Explain your reasons for making these recommendations and include the muscle fiber type trained. (300 words or more)

3. Design a routine for a thirty-year-old man whose goal to tone up without over training or exerting. Base your routine on the toning routine in the PT Manual. Include routines, sets, reps, exercises and diet and supplements you recommend. How many days each week should he train? Note that you cannot include a bodybuilding-split routine as your answer. Explain your reasons for making these recommendations and include the muscle fiber type trained. (300 words or more)

Exam answers may be e-mailed to:

exams@amfpt.com and amfpt@aol.com

You can also mail your exam to the USA headquarters: